MrLunk on Instagram

Tuesday, December 29, 2009

Famous Marijuana Smokers...

Famous Marijuana Smokers

Whether 1 time smokers or avid supporters

Aaron Sorkin, Abbie Hoffman, Al Gore, Alice B. Toklas, Andrew Jackson, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Art Garfunkel, Benicio Del Toro, Bill Clinton, Bill Maher, Bill Murray, Bing Crosby, Bob Denver, Bob Dylan, Bob Marley, Bobby Brown, Brad Pitt, B-Real, Bruce Lee, Bruce Willis, Buju Banton, Busta Rhymes, Cab Calloway, Calvin Klein, Carl Sagan, Carlos Santana, Carrie Fisher, Charley Sheen, Charlize Theron, Cher, Chris Conrad, Chris Farley, Chrissie Hynde, Chubby Checker, Conan O'Brian, Count Basie, D'Angelo, David Hockney, David Richards, Dionne Warwick, DJ Muggs, Dr. Aaron Esterson, Dr. David Cooper, Dr. Francis Crick, Dr. Jaques J. Moreau, Dr. Lester Grinspoon, Dr. R.D. Laing, Dr. W.B. O'Shaugnessy, Drew Barrymore, Duke Ellington, Ed Rosenthal, Elton John, Eminem, Emperor Shen-nung, Faith Evans, Franklin Pierce, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gene Krupa, George Clooney, George Michael, George W. Bush, George W. Carver, George Washington, Gilbert Shelton, Harrison Ford, Howard Marks, Howard Stern, Hugh Downs, Hunter S. Thompson, Ja Rule, Jack Black, Jack Nicholson, James Brown, James Monroe, Jane Fonda, Janet Jackson, Jello Biafra, Jennifer Aniston, Jennifer Capriati, Jesse Ventura, Jim Morrison, Jimmy Dorsey, Jimmy Hendrix, John Belushi, John Denver, John F Kennedy, John Kerry, John Lennon, John Sinclair, Johnny Cash, Johnny Dep, Julia Roberts, Justin Timberlake, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Keanu Reeves, Keith Richards, Larry Hagman, Lenora Garza, Levi Strauss, Linda McCartney, Louis Armstrong, Louisa May Alcott, Luke Perry, Macaulay Culkin, Margaret Mead, Margaret Trudeau, Matthew McConaughey, Michael Bloomberg, Michael Madsen, Mick Jagger, Mikki Norris, Misty Rain, Montel Williams, Neil Young, Nelly, Newt Gingrich, Norman Mailer, O.J. Simpson, Oliver Stone, Pablo Picasso, Pancho Villa, Paris Hilton, Paul McCartney, Peter Fonda, Peter Tosh, Pierre Elliot Trudeau, Price Harry Mountbatten-Windsor, Prince Charles Windsor, Queen Victoria, Ray Charles, Richard Feynman, Ricky Williams, Ringo Garza, Rita Marley, Robert Altman, Robert Mitchum, Rodney Dangerfield, Ross Rebagliati, Salvador Dali, Sen Dog, Sinead O'Connor, Snoop Dogg, Sonny Bono, Steve Jobs, Steven King, Sting, Ted Turner, Theloneus Monk, Thomas Jefferson, Tommy Chong, Tony Banks, Victor Hugo, Wesley Snipes, Whitney Houston, William Shakespeare, Willie Nelson, Winston Churchill, Woody Harrelson,

Know of any others that are not mentioned here ?
Plz leave a comment ;)
Thanks :))))
Thursday, December 24, 2009

Merry X-Mas all !


Click image for a larger version...

Studying the Effects of Marijuana


A public service announcement featuring the Frankenstein monster on the effects of marijuana use.



Reasearch footage from around the same time:

Wednesday, December 23, 2009

American Drug War The Last White Hope



The War on Drugs has become the longest and most costly war in American history, the question has become, how much more can the country endure?

The Union


A very well built documentary about cannabis and drug prohibition. Does the drug prohibition work? Have a look and think for yourself.

Penn and Teller - Bullshit - War On Drugs


Tuesday, December 22, 2009

WTF Darth Vader opening WallStreet Stockmarket dec 22 2009



Yah right Economic Crises...
But Darth Dude here has the doe to travel
half way thru the Galaxy to open WallStreet !

Darth Vader and a number of Storm Troopers from the Star Wars Saga rang the opening bell at the New York Stock Exchange. They, along with R2-D2, were there as representatives of Lucasfilm Ltd. (Dec. 22)

Source: The York Dispatch

Henry Ford and Rudolf Diesel Against Petroleum

The History of the American Development of the Automobile from the Model T and Diesel Engine to Bio-Fuels and Development Hindered by DuPont and the Petro-Chemical Companies.




Monday, December 21, 2009

Jackie Broyles and Dunlap: 'VAPORIZER for Christmas'

What does Dunlap want from Santa Claus? A vaporizer! He wants one so bad he breaks into a rockin' Christmas song that desecrates a beloved holiday with the glamorization of drug use.
You just gotta love it !


Jackie Broyles and Dunlap protect freedom and democracy
from a bunker underneath Jackie's Store in Murfreesboro, TN.

Follow @RedStateUpdate on Twitter.


Sunday, December 20, 2009

The most dangerous substance in the universe


As history is my witness, even without twentieth century technology, cannabis hemp has been interwoven with our evolution: From the spiritual gift of Shiva, the god Indra’s favourite drink and nectar of the gods in Vedic symbolism and tradition, cannabis hemp spread across culture and continent as our first and primary fibre, be it for clothing, fishing, bow strings, cordage… and as medicine, central to well-being: acknowledged since before the written word across Asia, and, come the twentieth century an ingredient in 50% of all medicines. Established as the best and most durable material for paper by the Chinese, a position unchallenged until industrialisation laid claim to the forests: and a jealously guarded secret, that did not find its way to Europe until the eighth century: on which, by the light of hemp oil lamps, monks and scholars produced our most enduring texts.

Artists painted with hemp oil paints on hemp canvas (canvas finding its entomological root in cannabis), and hempen rope and sail powered and steered Europe’s mighty galleons as they set sail to conquer the earth.

In the Americas, settlers set about conquering the continent with canvas covered wagons. The original Levi jeans were made from hempen sailcloth, riveted, tough enough for the 49ers to load their pockets with gold. Hemp could hardly be more central to US culture, for, together with its hempen flag, the declaration itself was drafted on hemp paper. Homesteads would invariably cultivate a ‘hemp patch’ and president after president sung hemp’s praises:

George Washington: “Make the most of Indian hemp seed, and sow it everywhere!”

Thomas Jefferson: “Hemp is of first necessity to the wealth and protection of our country.”

Abraham Lincoln: “Two of my favorite things are sitting on my front porch smoking a pipe of sweet hemp and playing my Honer [harmonica].”

John Adams: “We shall, by and by, want a world of hemp more for our consumption.”

Sentiments continuing into the Twentieth Century where Henry Ford, the great industrialist, asked: “Why use up the forests which were centuries in the making or the mines which required ages to lay down, if we can get the equivalent of forest and mineral products in the annual growth of the hemp fields?”

And finally, delving further into hidden history, one other use for this remarkable little weed. As settlers – Europe’s poverty stricken oppressed – began their quest for independence, to undermine British sterling, hemp became recognised as an alternative currency for trade and commerce: a currency all could find value in. Indeed, hemp was still used to pay taxes long after Limey had been vanquished from the ‘New World’.

Plastic, paper, pharmaceuticals, fuel, food, fabric, finance, soil enhancer, pollution devourer, spiritual benefactor: cannabis hemp is a complete companion, and the answer to a prayer for our desperately beleaguered and polarised world. Cannabis hemp, together with its multitudinous material uses, also engenders balance and harmony, through its catalysing effects towards spirituality: and returning value to nature, where, in reality, it belongs.

But, the more one owns: property, status, ego, power…, the less one finds a taste or use for cannabis hemp. Silk for nobles, canvas for peasants, meat for the elite, gruel (originally hemp seed) for the surf, alcohol for society, grass for the dispossessed, materialism for the wealthy, spirituality for the poor.

So through history, it was ever thus: hemp had its place, service, for the job at hand: functional, reliable, adaptable, and cheap – and everywhere. Shiva’s gift to the wretched: sustenance, shelter and spirituality.

Until now, where nature is outlawed. Outlawed, not for it’s danger to humanity, far from it, cannabis hemp could catalyse our saviour: but to the power hungry egotists who would own our world – and others besides.

Cannabis hemp comes head-to-head with all of our world’s most powerful corporations: oil, big pharma, big cotton, lumber, seeds and genetic modification, alcohol and tobacco, and the war machine. Furthermore, what government, after decades of dishonest and ill conceived laws that have destroyed the lives of millions (with law enforcement and private prisons now as powerful lobbying groups in their own right), could ever dare recognise their woeful error and duplicitous complicity in the persecution and attempted annihilation of God’s greatest gift to humanity?

So we are left with a world of poisonous chemical, genetically modified unnatural alternatives, dictated and dispensed by a handful of merchants and their whores defining our world order, who see power and wealth and expansion as primary objectives in themselves. A world without balance or harmony, driven by materialism and insecurity, where all must remain hungry and all must remain fearful, forever: as fuel, for the insatiable engine of capitalism.

To governments and corporations, and bankers: Cannabis Hemp is indeed, the most dangerous substance in the universe.

Source: Awareness.tk

AMA backs Medical Marijuana



Saturday, December 19, 2009

Innate cannabis chemical erases fears (cannabinoids)

Innate cannabis chemical erases fears
Calming brain circuit could treat anxieties

HELEN PEARSON


picture of relaxed mouse?

Brain chemicals similar to those in cannabis wipe out bad memories - and could point to new drugs for severe anxiety.

The chemicals are called cannabinoids. Mice with faulty cannabinoids can't forget traumatic events, Beat Lutz of the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry in Munich, Germany and his colleagues have found1. They suggest that the chemicals wipe fearful memories from the brain.

Drugs that boost cannabinoids could help people who suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, phobias and panic attacks, say the researchers.

Its "a great new idea," says neuroscientist Pankaj Sah of the Australian National University in Canberra: "It introduces a whole new target," for such therapies, he says.

Phobics are often treated by gradually exposing them to the object of their fear in a safe environment, to erase the bad association. Lutz suggests that cannabinoid-enhancing drugs, taken at the same time as this exposure, might aid memory clearance.

A joint is unlikely to do the trick: smoking floods the brain with cannabis's active ingredient and produces other effects such as memory changes and pain relief. More effective would be a drug that raised levels of cannabinoids only in the brain's fear centre, the amygdala, says Lutz.

Shock tactics

Lutz's team gave mice mild shocks while playing a loud tone, until the animals froze at the noise alone. When the shocks stopped, mice normally forgot the ordeal and stopped freezing in less than a week. Mice genetically engineered to lack the receptors that bind to cannabinoids were unable to forget within that time.

During memory erasure the amygdala is flooded with cannabinoids; these dampen the action of nerve cells.

Lutz is now giving normal mice cannabinoid boosters to see if they forget learnt fears more quickly. Other brain chemicals are involved in erasing fear. Clinical trials are planned for compounds that activate NMDA receptors in the amygdala, which are also involved in erasing unpleasant memories.

References

  1. Marsicano, G. et al. The endogenous cannabinoid system controls extinction of aversive memories. Nature, 418, 530 - 534, (2002).
picture of cannabis sativa

The nectar of delight


cannabis : just what the doctor ordered?

from: 'Plants of the Gods - Their Sacred,
Healing and Hallucinogenic Powers'
by: Richard Evans Schultes and Albert Hoffman
Healing Arts Press (Vermont) 1992

Tradition in India maintains that the gods sent man the Hemp plant so that he might attain delight, courage, and have heightened sexual desires. When nectar or Amrita dropped down from heaven, Cannabis sprouted from it. Another story tells how, when the gods, helped by demons, churned the milk ocean to obtain Amrita, one of the resulting nectars was Cannabis. It was consecrated to Shiva and was [the godess] Indra’s favourite drink. After the churning of the ocean, demons attempted to gain control of Amrita, but the gods were able to prevent this seizure, giving Cannabis the name Vijaya (“victory”) to commemorate their success. Ever since, this plant of the gods has been held in India to bestow supernatural powers on its users.

The partnership of Cannabis and man has existed now probably for ten thousand years – since the discovery of agriculture in the Old World. One of our oldest cultivars, Cannabis has been a five- purpose plant: as a source of hempen fibres; for its oil; for its akenes or “seeds,” consumed by man for food; for its narcotic properties; and therapeutically to treat a wide spectrum of ills in folk medicine and in modern pharmacopoeias.

Mainly because of its various uses, Cannabis has been taken to many regions around the world. Unusual things happen to plants after long association with man and agriculture. They are grown in new and strange environments and often have opportunities to hybridize that are not offered in their native habitats. They escape from cultivation and frequently become aggressive weeds. They may be changed through human selection for characteristics associated with a specific use. Many cultivated plants are so changed from their ancestral typed that it is not possible to unravel their evolutionary history. Such is not the case, however, with Cannabis. Yet, despite its long history as a major crop plant, Cannabis is still characterised more by what is not known about its biology than what is known.

The botanical classification of Cannabis has long been uncertain. Botanists have not agreed on the family to which Cannabis belongs; early investigators put it in the Nettle family (Urticaceae); later it was accommodated in the Fig family (Moraceae); the general trend today is to assign it to a special family,Cannabaceae, in which only Cannabis and Humulus, the genus of Hops, are members.


(allso used to make beer btw)

There has even been disagreement as to how many species of Cannabis exist: whether the genus comprises one highly variable species or several distinct species. Evidence now strongly indicates that three species can be recognised:C. indica, C. ruderalia, and C. sativa. These species are distinguished by different growth habits, characters of the akenes, and especially by major differences in structure of the wood. Although all species possess cannabinols, there may possible be significant chemical differences, but the evidence is not yet available.

Cannabis Sativa:
These plants are characterized by long thin flowers and spiky leaves. They originate from equatorial regions where the growing season is hotter. They are not generally used for outdoor cultivation in colder climates, although some hybrids can produce good yields in such conditions.
Cannabis sativas have more of a high than Cannabis indica buds.

Cannabis Indica:
These plants originated in the Hindu-kush areas of Central Asia, where the weather is changeable and growing conditions can be harsh. Hardy plants, they mature early and are characterized by broad, short leaves and heavy, tight flowers.
Cannabis indica varieties are ideal for indoor and outdoor cultivation in cooler climates.

Cannabis Ruderalis: Cannabis ruderalis is a variety of cannabis that grows wild in parts of Eastern Europe and Russia. It is characterized by its early flowering, with some plants starting irrespective of the photo-period. Cannabis ruderalis is ideal for cultivation in cooler climates and areas where conditions are harsh. There are Dutch hybrid varieties available that combine Cannabis ruderalis and Cannabis indica.

-quoted from
Cannabis Cultivation - A Complete Grower's Guide by Mel Thomas

We cannot known now which of the several uses of Cannabis was earliest. Since plant uses normally proceed from the simpler to the more complex, one might presume that its useful fibers first attracted man’s attention. Indeed remains of hempen fibers have been found in the earliest archaeological sites in the cradles of Asiatic civilisation: evidence of fiber in China dating from 4000 B.C. and hempen rope and thread from Turkestan from 3000 B.C.. Stone beaters for pounding hemp fiber and impressions of hempen cord bakery into pottery have been found in ancient sites in Taiwan. Hempen fabrics have been found in Turkish sites of the late eighth century B.C., and there is a questionable specimen of Hemp in an Egyptian tomb dated between three and four thousand years ago.

The Indian vadas sang of Cannabis as one of the divine nectars, able to give man anything from good health and long life to visions of the gods. The Zend-Avesta of 600 B.C. mentions an intoxicating resin, and the Assyrians used Cannabis as an incense as early as the ninth century B.C..

Inscriptions from the Chou dynasty in China, dated 700-500 B.C., have a “negative” connotation that accompanies the ancient character for Cannabis, Ma, implying its stupefying properties. Since this idea obviously predated writing, the Pen Tsao Ching, written in A.D. 100 but going back to a legendary emperor, Shen-Nung, 2000 B.C., may be taken as evidence that the hallucinogenic properties at very early dates. It was said that Ma-fen (“Hemp fruit”) “if taken to excess, will produce hallucinations [literally, ‘seeing devils’]. If taken over a long term, it makes one communicate with spirits and lightens one’s body.” A Taoist priest wrote in the fifth century B.C. that Cannabis was employed by “necromancers, in combination with Ginseng, to set forward time and reveal future events.” In these early periods, use of Cannabis as an hallucinogen was undoubtedly associated with Chinese shamanism, but by the time of European contact 1500 years later, shamanism had fallen into decline, and the use of the plant for inebriation seems to have ceased and had been forgotten. Its value in China then was primarily as a fiber source. There was, however, a continuous record of Hemp cultivation in China from Neolithic times, and it has been suggested that Cannabis may have originated in China, not in central Asia.

About 500 B.C. the Greek writer Herodotus described a marvelous bath of the Scythians, aggressive horsemen who swept out of the Transcaucasus eastward and westward. He reported that “they make a booth by fixing in the ground three sticks inclined toward one another, and stretching around them woollen plets which they arrange so as to fit as close as possible: inside the booth a dish is place upon the ground into which they put a number of red hot stones and then add some Hemp seed … immediately it smokes and gives out such a vapour as no Grecian vapour bath can exceed; the Scyths, delighted, shout for joy….”

Only recently, archaeologists have excavated frozen Scythian tombs in central Asia, dated between 500 and 300 B.C., and have found tripods and pelts, braziers and charcoal with remains of Cannabis leaves and fruit. It has generally been accepted that Cannabis originated in central Asia and that it was the Scythians who spread it westward to Europe.

While the Greeks and Romans may not generally have taken Cannabis for inebriation, there are indications that they were aware of the psychoactive effects of the drug. Democritus reported that it was occasionally drunk with wine and myrrh to produce visionary states, and Galen, about A.D. 200, wrote that it was sometimes customary to give Hemp to guests to promote hilarity and enjoyment.

Cannabis arrived in Europe from the north. In classical Greece and Rome, it was not cultivated as a fiber plant. Fiber for ropes and sails, however, was available to the Romans from Gaul as early as the third century B.C.. The Roman writer Lucilius mentioned it in 120 B.C.. Pliny the Elder outlined the preparation and grades of hempen fibers in the first century A.D., and hempen rope was found in a Roman site in England dated A.D. 140-180. Whether the Vikings used Hemp rope or not is not known, but palynological evidence indicates that Hemp cultivation had a tremendous increment in England from the early Anglo-Saxon period to late Saxon and Norman times – from 400 to 1100.

Henry VIII fostered the cultivation of Hemp in England. The maritime supremacy of England during Elizabethan times greatly increased the demand. Hemp cultivation began in the British colonies in the New World: first in Canada in 1606, then in Virginia in 1611; the Pilgrims took the crop to New England in 1632. In pre-Revolutionary North America, Hemp was employed even for making work clothes. Hemp was introduced quite independently into Spanish colonies in America: Chile, 1545; Peru, 1554.

There is no doubt that hempen fiber production represents an early use of Cannabis, but perhaps consumption of its edible akenes as food predated the discovery of the useful fiber. These akenes are very nutritious, and it is difficult to imagine that early man, constantly searching for food, would have missed this opportunity. Archaeological finds of Hemp akenes in Germany, dated with reservation at 500 B.C., indicate the nutritional use of these plant products. From early times to the present, Hemp akenes have been used as food in eastern Europe, and in the United States as a major ingredient of bird food.

The folk-medicinal value of Hemp – frequently indistinguishable from its hallucinogenic properties – may even be its earliest role as an economic plant. The earliest record of the medicinal use of the plant is that of the Chinese emperor herbalist Shen Nung who, five thousand years ago, recommended Cannabis for malaria, beri-beri, constipation, rheumatic pains, absent-mindedness, and female disorders. Hoa-Glio, another ancient Chinese herbalist, recommended a mixture of Hemp resin and wine as an analgesic during surgery.

It was in ancient India that this “gift of the gods” founded excessive use in folk medicine. It was believed to quicken the mind, prolong life, improve judgement, lower fevers, induce sleep, cure dysentery. Because of its psychoactive properties it was more highly valued than medicines with only physical activity. Several systems of Indian medicine esteemed Cannabis. The medical work Sushruta claimed that it cured leprosy. The Bharaprakasha of about A.D. 1600 described it as antiphlegmatic, digestive, bile affecting, pungent, and astringent, prescribing it to stimulate the appetite, improve digestion, and better the voice. The spectrum of medicinal uses in India covered control of dandruff and relief of headache, mania, insomnia, venereal disease, whooping cough, earaches, and tuberculosis!

The fame of Cannabis as a medicine spread with the plant. In parts of Africa, it was valued in treating dysentery, malaria, anthrax, and fevers. Even today the Hottentots and Mfengu claim its efficacy in treating snake bites, and Sotho women induce partial stupefaction by smoking Hemp before childbirth.

Although Cannabis seems not to have been employed in medieval Europe as an hallucinogen, it was highly valued in medicine and its therapeutic uses can be traced back to early classical physicians such as Diosco-rides and Galen. Medieval herbalists distinguished “manured hempe” (cultivated) from “bastard hempe” (weedy), recommending the latter “against nodes and wennes and other hard tumors,” the former for a host of uses from curing cough to jaundice. They cautioned, however, that in excess it might cause sterility, that “it drieth up… the seeds of generation” in men “and the milke of women’s breasts.” An interesting use in the sixteenth century – source of the name Angler’s Weed in England – was locally important: “poured into the holes of earthwormes [it] will draw them forth and… fishermen and anglers have used this feate to baite their hooks.”

The value of Cannabis in folk medicine has clearly been closely tied with its euphoric and hallucinogenic properties, knowledge of which may be as old as its use as a source of fibre. Primitive man, trying all sorts of plant materials as food, must have known the ecstatic hallucinatory effects of Hemp, and intoxication introducing him to an other-worldly plane leading to religious beliefs. Thus the plant early was viewed as a special gift of the gods, a sacred medium for communion with the spirit world. Although Cannabis today is the most widely employed of the hallucinogens, its use purely as a narcotic, except in Asia, appears not to be ancient. In classical times it euphoric properties were, however, recognised. In Thebes, Hemp was made into a drink said to have opium-like properties.

Galen reported that cakes with Hemp, if eaten to excess, were intoxicating. The use as an inebriant seems to have been spread east and west by barbarian hordes of central Asia, especially the Scythians, who had a profound cultural influence on early Greece and eastern Europe. And knowledge of the intoxicating effects of Hemp goes far back in Indian history, as indicated by the deep mythological and spiritual beliefs about the plant. One preparation, Bhang, was so sacred that it was thought to deter evil, bring luck, and cleanse man of sin. Those treading upon the leaves of this holy plant would suffer harm or disaster, and sacred oaths were sealed over Hemp. The favourite drink of Indra, god of the firmament, was made from Cannabis, and the Hindu god Shiva commanded that the word Bhangi must be chanted repeatedly during sowing, weeding, and harvesting of the holy plant. Knowledge and use of the intoxicating properties eventually spread to Asia Minor. Hemp was employed as an incense in Assyria in the first millennium B.C., suggesting its use as an inebriant. While there is no direct mention of Hemp in the Bible, several obscure passages may refer tangentially to the effects of Cannabis resin or Hashish.

It is perhaps in the Himalayas of India and the Tibetan plateau that Cannabis preparations assumed their greatest hallucinogenic importance in religious contexts. Bhang is a mild preparation: dried leaves or flowering shoots are pounded with spices into a paste and consumed as candy – known as maajun – or in tea form. Ganja is made from the resin-rich dried pistillate flowering tops of cultivated plants which are pressed into a compacted mass and kept under pressure for several days to induce chemical changes; most Ganja is smoked, often with Tobacco. Charas consists of the resin itself, a brownish mass which is employed generally in smoking mixtures.

The Tibetans considered Cannabis sacred. A Mahayana Buddhist tradition maintains that during the six steps of asceticism leading to his enlightenment, Buddha lived on one Hemp seed a day. He is often depicted with “Soma leaves” in his begging bowl and the mysterious god-narcotic Soma has occasionally been identified with Hemp. In Tantric Buddhism of the Himalayas of Tibet, Cannabis plays a very significant role in the meditative ritual used to facilitate deep meditation and heighten awareness. Both medicinal and recreational secular use of Hemp is likewise so common now in this region that the plant is taken for granted as an everyday necessity.

Folklore maintians that the use of Hemp was introduced to Persia during the reign of Khursu (A.D. 531-579), but it is known that the Assyrians used Hemp as an incense during the first millennium B.C..

Although at first prohibited among islamic peoples, Hashish spread widely west throughout Asia Minor. In 1378, authorities tried to extirpate Hemp from Arabian territory by the imposition of harsh punishments. As early as 1271, the eating of Hemp was so well known that Marco Polo described its consumption in the secret order of Hashishins, who used the narcotic to experience the rewards in store for them in the afterlife.

Cannabis extended early and widely from Asia Minor into Africa, partly under the pressure of Islamic influence, but the use of Hemp transcends Mohammedan use. It is widely believed that Hemp was introduced also with slaves from Malaya. Commonly known in Africa as Kif or Dagga, the plant has entered into primitive native cultures in social and religious contexts. The Hottentots, Bushmen, and Kaffirs used Hemp for centuries as a medicine and as an intoxicant. In an ancient tribal ceremony in the Zambesi Valley, participants inhaled vapours from a pile of smouldering Hemp; later, reed tubes and pipes were employed, and the plant material was burned on an altar. The Kasai tribes of the Congo have revived an old Riamba cult in which Hemp, replacing ancient fetishes and symbols, was elevated to a god – a protector against physical and spiritual harm. Treaties are sealed with puffs of smoke from calabash pipes. Hemp-smoking and Hashish-snuffing cults exist in many parts of east Africa, especially near Lake Victoria.

Hemp has spread to many areas of the New World, but with few exceptions the plant has not penetrated significantly into many native American religious beliefs and ceremonies. There are, however, exceptions such as its use under the name Rosa Maria, by the Tepecano Indians of northwest Mexico who occasionally employ Hemp when Peyote is not available. It has recently been learned that Indians in the Mexican states of Veracruz, Hidalgo, and Puebla practice a communal curing ceremony with a plant called Santa Rosa, identified as Cannabis sativa, which is considered both a plant and a sacred intercessor with the Virgin. Although the ceremony is based mainly on Christian elements, the plant is worshipped as an earth deity and is thought to be alive and to represent a part of the heart of God. The participants in this cult believe that the plant can be dangerous and that it can assume the form of a man’s soul, make him ill, enrage him, and even cause death.

Sixty years ago, when Mexican labourers introduced the smoking of Marihuana to the United States, it spread across the south, and by the 1920s, its use was established in New Orleans, confined primarily among the poor and minority groups. The continued spread of the custom in the United States and Europe has resulted in a still unresolved controversy.

Cannabis sativa was officially in the United States Pharmacopoeia until 1937, recommended for a wide variety of disorders, especially as a mild sedative. It is no longer an official drug, although research in the medical potential of some of the cannabinolic constituents or their semi-synthetic analogues is at present very active, particularly in relation to the side-effects of cancer therapy.

The psychoactive effects of Cannabis preparations vary widely, depending on dosage, the preparation and the type of plant used, the method of administration, personality of the user, and social and cultural background. Perhaps the most frequent characteristic is a dreamy state. Long forgotten events are often recalled and thoughts occur in unrelated sequences. Perception of time, and occasionally of space, is altered. Visual and auditory hallucinations follow the use of large doses. Euphoria, excitement, inner happiness – often with hilarity and laughter – are typical. In some cases, a final mood of depression may be experienced. While behaviour is sometimes impulsive, violence or aggression is seldom induced.

In relatively recent years, the use of Cannabis as an intoxicant has spread widely in Western society – especially in the United States and Europe – and has caused apprehension in law-making and law- enforcing circles and has created social and health problems. There is still little, if any, agreement on the magnitude of these problems or on their solution. Opinion appears to be pulled in two directions: that the use of Cannabis is an extreme social, moral, and health danger that must be stamped out, or that it is an innocuous, pleasant pastime that should be legalised. It may be some time before all of the truths concerning the use in our times and society of this ancient drug are fully known. Since an understanding of the history and attitudes of peoples who have long used the plant may play a part in furthering our handling of the situation in modern society, it behooves us to consider the role of Cannabis in man’s past and to learn what lessons it can teach us: whether to maintain wise restraint in our urbanised, industrialised life or to free it for general use. For it appears that Cannabis may be with us for a long time.

Friday, December 18, 2009

The #1 Cash Crop in the United States of America

Thursday, December 17, 2009

Modern uses for Hemp


Click image for a larger version...


Tuesday, December 15, 2009

The Truth About Medical Marijuana


A panel of legal and medical experts join author Ed Rosenthal in a discussion on the impact of state laws allowing medical marijuana versus federal efforts to override all decriminalization statutes in this forum sponsored by the Independent Institute, Harper's Magazine and the Goldman School of Public Policy at UC Berkeley.
Series: "Richard and Rhoda Goldman School of Public Policy at UC Berkeley" [3/2004] [Public Affairs] [Health and Medicine] [Show ID: 8463]


Monday, December 14, 2009

'Super-HIGH me!' or 'Business as usual.'


Determined to find out the true effects of marijuana on the human body, stand-up comedian and former Stoner of the Year Doug Benson documents his experience avoiding pot for 30 days and then consuming massive amounts of the drug for 30 days. More than just an amusing story of one man's quest to get superhigh, this documentary also examines the hotly contested debate over medical marijuana use.


















Sunday, December 13, 2009

Pharmacological actions of NON-Psychotropic cannabinoids.

Pharmacological actions
of
NON-Psychotropic cannabinoids:
Click image for a larger version.
Saturday, December 12, 2009

Smoking Marijuana Mental Disorder

Psychology with Sandy...

According to the American Psychiatric Associations, Cannabis (Marijuana) intoxication is an official mental disorder listed in the DSM or Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders.

This isn't to be confused with pot addiction, dependency or abuse, this is just being high.

Friday, December 11, 2009

POTential Therapeutic Uses of Medical Marijuana.

Recent Research on Medical Marijuana
(2000-2009 reports)

Full article:

Moms say Marijuana is SAFER than Alcohol !

A feature story from a Phoenix news station regarding the movement to legalize marijuana so that people have a safer alternative to alcohol. It features SAFER Executive Director Mason Tvert and his mom, Diane, discussing the relative safety of marijuana compared to alcohol, as well as the efforts underway to end marijuana prohibition so that people are no longer being steered toward drinking and away from making the safer choice.


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Tuesday, December 8, 2009

The Truth about Marijuana the Government doesn't want you to know

By: Nol van Schaik: The price level of cannabis in Dutch coffeeshops: How and Why.



This article is almost like a request write up, because the price level of hash and weed in Dutch coffeeshops is a hot topic amongst our customers, but also for our staff and those working in other coffeeshops.
During the last evaluation talks with our staff, one question came up a few times from several members of our staff. They asked me if we could offer cheaper bud on sale… Sure, I said, get me some cheaper marihuana, and I will offer it cheaper on the menu.
I fully understand why they came up with this question, our dealers are the ones listening to complaints about high cannabis prices from our customers. They did not know how to explain the level of prices as they are, and believe me, Haarlem coffeeshops are cheap compared to the Amsterdam prices for bud and resin. Of course our customers blame us for upholding the prices the way they are, but that is not so, on the contrary, we have no say in the prices at all!

In the good old days a coffeeshop had its own group of growers/suppliers, which meant the coffeeshopowner had influence over the strains their growers produced, and we knew how the cannabis was grown. The prices were the same all over the Netherlands, just because there were no other takers in our line of business. Sure, some people would buy a kilo to take abroad, or even some more, but they bought from coffeeshops, not from the growers. There was a raise in prices during and after the holiday season, for two reasons: Growers take holidays too, when they do, they cannot grow, so they lose production time, like half a harvest. Another reason is the heat of summer, marihuana plants are pretty easy to grow, but when the temperature in a growroom goes above 27 degrees centigrade, the growth stuns. Many Dutch growers don’t even start growing in July and August, after they had bad summer crops. This meant coffeeshops had to stock up in Spring, to keep themselves supplied during and after the summer. All in all, the situation was easy to oversee, and growers went to coffeeshops to offer their products, where else?

Things changed when the UK started craving for Nederweed, triggered by a more tolerant stance towards cannabis consumption in England around 2001. Flocks of British buyers started to move in on our market and growers, buying marihuana left and right, to make up a bulk transport for their clients across The Channel. The only way to get their hands on the merchandise was to outbid the market, in other words, the coffeeshops. Growers are not bound to coffeeshops by contract, they will sell to the highest bidder, so the UK buyers started to offer higher prices to assure themselves of their merchandise. Cannabis prices in England went up to 8-9 pounds per gram, which meant 12-14 euro’s per gram. We were taken by surprise, growers we were reckoning with did not show up anymore, they already sold to some guy offering them 400 euro’s per kilo more than the going price in coffeeshops. We, some of my close colleagues and me, started running short on weed, so we called each other for an eventual coffeeshop to coffeeshop deal, meaning helping each other by selling some of your stock to a colleague. All of us were facing the same problem, weed was becoming scarce, and prices were soaring. Normally, we would get cannabis offered, a sample bag with a price and a phone number, you would call the numbers with the right weed, quality and price attached. Now, we had to hit the streets again, to buy ourselves weed wherever we could, but only if we wanted to pay the price, the same or a bit more than the UK export price. If you do not want to pay their price, no deal, no weed. So, coffeeshops pay the price, what else?

In the meanwhile, the Netherlands changed governments, the political compass went from liberal to conservative, and eventually to very conservative. The past three governments and the present one were and are dominated by religious groups which pretend to be political parties. These political pilgrims do not like cannabis, nor the people that smoke cannabis, grow cannabis and sell cannabis, so they use every trick in the book to get rid of coffeeshops, their visitors and their suppliers.

So, another trick was set up to make people stop growing cannabis in their homes, because if you cut the supply, the coffeeshops might run dry and lose their customers. Politicians, like chess players, should be looking a few steps ahead, their clever scheme did not foresee that it would effectively eliminate a lot of the true homegrowers, but it did not dry up the coffeeshops, so the customers keep on coming and smoking. The people that kept/keep on growing were not intimidated by the eviction rule, they grow in some warehouse or basement, the lease is not in their own name, so they cannot be kicked out of their homes. These big growers used to supply the export market, the smaller growers used to supply the coffeeshops. Now, coffeeshops or their suppliers have to turn to big growers to buy cannabis, because the few small growers left cannot take care of the coffeeshop market. The homegrowers used to sell their merchandise for reasonable prices, the big boys keep their prices on the export level. I hope this makes people understand that coffeeshops have absolutely no influence on the market/buying price of cannabis, I wish we had!
This is only the first half of the story, this was about the buying price. Explaining how we go from the buyers price to the consumers price is the other half of the story.
Although it is theoretically forbidden to buy cannabis in quantities bigger than 5 grams, coffeeshops or their suppliers by hash and weed by the kilo, and stash those batches somewhere to be able to supply the coffeeshops from there. These stashes are illegal, but as soon as a cannabis products moves from a stash to a coffeeshop it becomes legal, and taxes have to be paid over the sales of these products. The Tax people tell us what the consumer price is: we have to sell our cannabis products for the buying price + 100 %, or more than 100 %, NOT less! This means we can no longer sell cannabis with discount, the Taxman taxes us for the full price, so discounts are no longer allowed.
It also means that coffeeshops have to sell a gram of cannabis they bought for 4 Euro’s for 8 euro’s, cannabis bought for 5 euro’s for 10 euro’s etc…
As you can see, the taxman sets the consumer price, there is nothing we can do about that, if we do not pay our taxes as prescribed, we will lose our businesses.
I took the time to explain this hot topic the best possible way I can, because I want the consumer to know why the price level of cannabis has gone up since the introduction of the euro currency. I want to ask the consumers to realize all this when they buy cannabis in a Dutch coffeeshop, the dealer serving you cannot be blamed for the prices of bud…. This article is also meant for the many smokers criticizing the prices in coffeeshops on forums around the world, calling my colleagues and me ‘greedy bastards’ and other insulting names connected to our profession. I took and take accusations like this personal, because I am a Dutch coffeeshopowner, and proud of it!

Nol van Schaik.
Haarlem, the Netherlands.
Sunday, December 6, 2009

Documentary: 'Waiting to inhale'

'Waiting to inhale', examines the heated debate over marijuana and its use as medicine in the United States. Twelve states have passed legislation to protect patients who use medical marijuana. Yet opponents claim the medical argument is just a smokescreen for a different agenda– to legalize marijuana for recreation and profit. What claims are being made, and what are the stakes?

Waiting to Inhale takes viewers inside the lives of patients who have been forever changed by illness—and parents who lost their children to addiction. Is marijuana really a gateway drug? What evidence is there to support the claim that marijuana can alleviate some of the devastating symptoms of AIDS, cancer and multiple sclerosis? Waiting to Inhale sheds new light on this controversy and presents shocking new evidence that marijuana could hold a big stake in the future of medicine.

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The Science Behind the Film:

Dr. Donald Abrams’ Study on the Effect of Smoked Marijuana on Chronic Neuropathic
and Experimentally Induced Pain in HIV Neuropathy.


Cannabis use improves retention and virological outcomes in patients treated for hepatitis C


Treatment for hepatitis C virus and cannabis use in illicit drug user patients: implications and questions


Marijuana Use and Its Association With Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Infected Persons With Nausea


Lancet Neurology2003 : The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabis

Weblink - Institute of Medicine Study: Marijuana and Medicine Assessing the Science Base

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